Pakistan’s progress has also been severely lagging in Goal 2, achieving universal primary education as it is off track in achieving the targets set for 2015 in all three indicators. In particular, the completion/survival rate seems to have declined rapidly in recent years implying that more than a quarter of the students enrolled in primary schools did not complete their education. Pakistan’s literacy rate, though having improved marginally over the years remains considerably short of the MDG target of 88% by 2015 at 58%, and closer inspection reveals large gender at 2.9 percent of GDP, Pakistan’s investment in education is well below Millennium Development Goal (MDG) requirements. The country’s Human Development Index (HDI) rank in education is 144, significantly below its overall HDI rank of 125. The educational status of women is among the worst in the world with high dropout rates for girls due to customs like early marriages and forced domestic labor. Rural literacy among girls, at 26 percent, is estimated to be half that of boys. Rapid growth of private sector education providers has partially compensated for poor government spending in education. But these facilities are mainly urban-based and often unaffordable for the poor, apart from being poorly regulated in terms of quality and standards. Similarly, rapid increase in the number of madrasas in certain parts of the country is helping the poor receive a basic education, but since their curricula are religion-oriented and generally do not follow national guidelines, these institutions offer limited scope for transition to formal or higher education, and formal employment and rural/urban disparities.